Friday, May 31, 2019

Graduation Speech: Measure Your Success by Your Relationships :: Free Graduation Speech

Raoul Wall(a)enberg, a man who saved thousands from the horrors of the Holocaust, told the story of a Rabbi and the lesson that he taught to his young learners. The Rabbi asked the young male childs the following question When is it that night turns into day? One boy offered that perhaps it was when he was on his way home from a friends house, and he could see the sun coming up everywhere the top of his house in the distance. The Rabbi kindly replied that no, that was not it. Another boy suggested that perhaps it was when he was in the forest, and he could see the sun coming through the tops of the trees above him. The Rabbi one time again turned down the answer. And then the Rabbi gave the correct response. The point at which night turns into day is when you can look into the eyes of a perfect antic and see your brother. Let me rephrase that the point at which we truly become intelligent people, meaning our eyes are no longer clouded over by the darkness of ignorance, is when we can recognize each other for who we really are. Until we reach that point, we have not become intelligent people. Many people commit that intelligence stems from letter grades or from innate brilliance. I have to admit that Ive thought that way too. But such is not the case. So, then, what is the importance of all this? Of college? Of all the hard work? The importance is not the facts that you have rolling around your brain when you graduate but the experiences that have changed your soul. So dont let anyone tell you what an implausible success you are because you make a huge amount of money a year. Dont believe the passerby who immediately is intimidated by the letters PHD subsequently your name. Dont feel bad because you dont understand the principles of

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations Essay

The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friels TranslationsRegarded by many as Brian Friels theatrical masterpiece, Seamus Deane described Translations as a sequence of events in history which are transformed by his writing into a parable of events in the present day (Introduction 22). The play was first produced in Derry in 1980. It was the first production by Field Day, a pagan arts group founded by Friel and the actor Stephen Rea, and associated with Deane, Seamus Heaney and Tom Paulin.As Deane asserts, the play is in many respects an intelligent and enlightening metaphor for the situation in Northern Ireland. The aims of raising cultural awareness and dispelling socio-political apathy in the North were central to the objectives of the Field Day group. However, despite Friels concerns with contemporary Ireland, the play is also an enchanting fictive depict of the Irish experience of British colonialism. My aim in this page is to firmly place Translations within its historic al context, in order to understand the representation of colonialism in the play and to facilitate further post-colonial readings.Translations may be located both temporally and spatially to a fixed point in Irish history. The characters fare from Baile Beag, renamed with the anglicised title of Ballybeg. The action of the play occurs over a number of days towards the end of August 1833. Before delving into the play it is clear, from these most general of points, that the mise-en-scene of Translations is a conclusion of great significance in the colonial relationship between Ireland and England.The lifetime of Hugh and Jimmy Jack, the sixty years or so running up to 1833, aegir witness to many important events in the metamorphosis of Ireland from a rural Gaelic society to a modern colonial nation. To go back another(prenominal) seven decades, in 1704 penal laws were enacted which decreed that a Catholic could not hold any office of state, nor stand for Parliament, vote, join the army or navy, occupation at the bar nor....buy land (Kee Ireland A History 54). Thus, by 1778 a mere five per cent of the land of Ireland was owned by Catholics. The Irish race (most notably Catholics, though Protestants also) such as those portrayed in Translations suffered severe discrimination, poverty and hardship.The French Revolution of 1789 jolted Irish political thinking into a new fr... ... to speak English and every subject will be taught through English (396).Maires desire, at the opening of the play, to speak English shall short be enforced by law throughout the National Schools in Ireland. Where Dan OConnell and Maire both assumed the use of English would allow progress towards their several(prenominal) national and personal dreams, Hugh believes that English was simply for commerce but that it couldnt really express us (the Irish) (418). He realised that the use of Gaelic, of remaining unbent to their own traditions was a method of resisting colonialism, our only method of replying to .... inevitabilities (418).Perhaps the most ironic passage in the play appears during a conversation between Yolland and Hugh. Hugh indulges himself the buoyant position of condescending to the young soldier, dismissing William Wordsworth (and by implication English Literature)Wordsworth?.... No Im afraid were not familiar with your literature, Lieutenant. .... We tend to degenerate your island (417).Poignantly, within a relatively short period of time the poetry of Wordsworth, and of the English canon, would be read and recited by the majority of children in Ireland.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Current State Laws on Human Cloning :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Current State Laws on Human Cloning   California Cal. Health & Safety Code, 24185 to 24189. Bans efforts to effect a homo being by utilizing corporeal cell nuclear transfer for the purpose of, or to implant, the forceing product to initiate a pregnancy that could result in the birth of a human being. Ban is to expire January 1, 2003 unless extended by legislature.     Louisiana La. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 40 1299.36 to 1299.36.6. Forbids any person to clon or set about to clone a human being, and forbids a health facility or agency to allow any individual to clone or attempt to clone a human being in a facility owned or operated by the health facility or agency. Clone is defined as in California law, to involve an intent to initiate a pregnancy. However, a crystalise state law prohibits intentionally destroying a viable fertilized ovum, and requires that no in vitro fertilized human ovum will be farmed or cultured solely for research purposes or any other purpose s. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 9, 129, 122. Whether this prohibits use of cloned embryos for research depends on how courts will turn in the phrase fertilized human ovum.     Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws 333.16274, 333.16275, 750.430a. Forbids any individual to engage in or attempt to engage in human cloning, applying civil penalties (up to a $10 million fine) and criminal penalties ($10 million fine and up to ten years in prison). Human cloning means the use of human somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to produce a human embryo. 333.16274(5). This law clearly forbids creating a cloned human embryo for any purpose, including research. A separate state law also forbids using a live human embryo for nontherapeutic research if... the research substantially jeopardizes the life or health of the embryo... execute such research is a felony. 333.2685 (1), 333.2691.     Rhode Island R.I. Gen. Laws 23-16.4-2 to 23-16.4-4. Bans use of somatic cell nuclear transfer for the p urpose of initiating or attempting to initiate a human pregnancy, as advantageously as the creation of genetically identical human beings by dividing a blastocyst, zygote, or embryo. The law seems to ban cloning by nuclear transfer single if done to initiate a pregnancy. However, a separate law prohibits the use of any live human fetus, whether before or after expulsion from its mothers womb, for scientific, laboratory research, or other kind of experimentation.

The Liberal Arts and the End of Education Essay -- Philosophy Educatio

The Liberal Arts and the End of EducationABSTRACT An international conference that takes doctrine Educating Humanity as its theme does well to revisit the broad(a) arts tradition. Although the liberal arts are most often assimilated to studies brought together as the Humanities, the hoar usage included the arts which employed artificial languages in mathematics, music, and astronomy, as well as the literature and letters of the various born(p) languages. The current conflation of liberal education with the humanities does violence to the historical tradition in education, reducing it to fluff in the eyes of tough-minded scientists who know that only numbers make objectivity. The liberal arts of the traditional undergraduate curriculum provided the skills to liberate the students linguistic powers so that he or she could read, speak, and understand natural language in on the whole its functions. To educate human persons to master language is to encourage students to take possessi on of their natural powers so that they can express themselves, understand what others say, and reason together. The arts of natural language lead to mastery of the mathematical arts which use a language that is no ones mother tongue. Together, the seven arts rid students of the worst enemies of worldly concern ignorance and prejudice. Since no one can be considered to have received a goodeducation if he accepts uncritically the opinions ofthe educators of his own measures, the student shouldencounter alternatives to these opinions.Samuel S. KutlerThe prehistorical is always difficult to deal with. We are torn between the temptations of remaining within the comfort of a past we have become accustomed to and the evenly dangerous alternative of fleeing an ... ...he arts of mathematical language teach us habits of rigorous, disinterested abstract thought. Post-moderns seem to be engaged in replacing philosophy, perhaps in the guise of logic, with rhetoric so that all becomes conv ersation or narrative, and privilege is problematic. Were we to resuscitate a version of the liberal arts tradition as pedagogy and a goal for our post-modern times, we would not be coaxing a dusty corpse of a bygone tradition back to life. Rather we would be putting our tradition into practice. The liberal arts live only in time, in some historical instantiation or another. Now may be the time to bring this curriculum back into our time. Rather than a person ill-equipped to do anything, the more traditionally educated liberal arts graduate could once more be a person who is equipped by his skills to do anything. And, to evaluate what is worth doing.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Ease Of Using Search Engines :: essays research papers fc

It is easy for all users to find specific information on the World Wide Web.Because the web is relatively new in terms of reaching a large percentage of a countrys population, users experience, understanding and expertise varies widely. Technically-minded people will arguably set out been beaten(prenominal) with the World Wide Web for longer, and wherefore be able to find specific information more efficiently, if not more quickly than less undergo users.Defining easy in terms of using the World Wide Web is interesting. In terms of seeking for a specific item, it could be outlined as the ability to satisfactorily fulfil a task within a short period of time.The increasingly plentiful selection of hunt club engines and reference sites on the Internet means that some users will experiment with varied engines, whilst others will find one they are satisfied with and make it their scratch stop when wishing to find information. Users who experiment with a variety of search engines w ill takings longer to familiarise themselves with each individual engine, this can take more time than a user who knows their way around their favourite engine.A user who is loyal to one or two search engines would therefore find it easy to retrieve information, provided their choice of search engine successfully provided the required data. If, however, the chosen search engine were not successful, the user would then have the option of either altering their selection of words, or try again on a completely different engine, one that may be unknown territory for the user.I have been loyal to a small number of search engines, because on the whole they have provided the information I require, albeit after attempting a small number of alternative input words or phrases. This loyalty has stemmed from both my becoming more familiar with these engines, and my acceptance that if my chosen search engines or reference sites cannot find the desired information, then it is unlikely I will hav e any greater success on entirely different ones. Moreover, having become used to a few search engines, namely ProFusion (Intelliseek) and AltaVista seems to lessen the attraction to try those unfamiliar to me, such as HotBot or GoZilla.The level of experience a person has with both computers and the World Wide Web can help determine what type of user they are. Sutcliffe suggests four categories detailed below,NaveNoviceSkilled (or Experienced)ExpertThe first of these Nave refers to someone who has either never used computers before, or who uses them only very occasionally.

Ease Of Using Search Engines :: essays research papers fc

It is easy for all users to find specific information on the World Wide sack.Because the web is relatively new in terms of reaching a large percentage of a countrys population, users experience, understanding and expertise varies widely. Technically-minded mess will arguably bear been familiar with the World Wide Web for longer, and therefore be able to find specific information much efficiently, if not more quickly than less experienced users.Defining easy in terms of using the World Wide Web is interesting. In terms of look for for a specific item, it could be defined as the ability to satisfactorily fulfil a task within a short period of duration.The increasingly plentiful selection of search railway locomotives and reference sites on the Internet means that some users will experiment with contrastive engines, whilst others will find adeptness they are satisfied with and make it their first stop when wishing to find information. Users who experiment with a variety of sea rch engines will take longer to familiarize themselves with each individual engine, this can take more time than a user who knows their way around their favourite engine.A user who is loyal to one or two search engines would therefore find it easy to retrieve information, provided their choice of search engine successfully provided the required data. If, however, the chosen search engine were not successful, the user would then have the option of either altering their selection of words, or try again on a completely different engine, one that may be uncharted territory for the user.I have been loyal to a small number of search engines, because on the whole they have provided the information I require, albeit after attempting a small number of alternative input words or phrases. This loyalty has stemmed from both my becoming more familiar with these engines, and my acceptance that if my chosen search engines or reference sites cannot find the desired information, then it is unlikely I will have any greater success on entirely different ones. Moreover, having become used to a few search engines, namely ProFusion (Intelliseek) and AltaVista seems to lessen the attraction to try those strange to me, such as HotBot or GoZilla.The level of experience a person has with both computers and the World Wide Web can help determine what display case of user they are. Sutcliffe suggests four categories detailed below,NaveNoviceSkilled (or Experienced)ExpertThe first of these Nave refers to someone who has either never used computers before, or who uses them only very occasionally.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Existentialism and Human Emotions Essay

I SHOULD LIKE on this occasion to def closedown existentialism against some charges which seduce been brought against it. First, it has been charged with inviting uncorrupted deal to stick around in a kind of desperate quietism because, since no solutions are possible, we should have to consider action in this world as quite impossible. We should then end up in a philosophy of contemplation and since contemplation is a luxury, we come in the end to a bourgeois philosophy. The communists in particular have made these charges. On the other pass away, we have been charged with dwelling on benignant degradation, with pointing up everyw present the sordid, shady, and slimy, and neglecting the gracious and beautiful, the bright side of military personnel constitution for example, according to Mlle.Mercier, a Catholic critic, with forgetting the smile of the child. Both sides charge us with having ignored human solidarity, with considering man as an isolated beingness. The communis ts say that the main author for this is that we take pure subjectivity, the Cartesian I think, as our starting point in other words, the moment in which man becomes fully aware of what it way to him to be an isolated being as a result, we are unable to return to a solid ground of solidarity with the men who are not ourselves, a state which we can never reach in the cogito.From the Christian standpoint, we are charged with denying the reality and seriousness of human undertakings, since, if we reject Gods commandments and the eternal verities, in that respect no longer remains anything barely pure caprice, with every angiotensin converting enzyme permitted to do as he pleases and incapable, from his own point of view, of condemning the points of view and acts of others.I sh all today fork over to answer these different charges. Many race are going to be surprised at what is said here about humanism. We shall try to see in what sense it is to be understood. In any case, what ca n be said from the very beginning is that by existentialism we mean a doctrine which makes human life possible and, in addition, declares that every truth and every action implies a human setting and a human subjectivity.As is generally know, the sanctioned charge against us is that we put the emphasis on the dark side of human life. Someone recently told me of a lady who, when she permit slip a vulgar word in a moment of irritation, excused herself by saying, I guess Im becoming an existentialist. Consequently, existentialism is regarded as something slimed that is why we are said to be naturalists and if we are, it is rather surprising that in this day and age we cause so more more alarm and scandalization than does naturalism, properly so called. The kind of person who can take in his stride such a novel as Zolas The Earth is stimulate as soon as he starts reading an existentialist novel the kind of person who is resigned to the wisdom of the ages-which is pretty sad-finds us even sadder. Yet, what can be more disillusioning than saying true charity begins at home or a scoundrel allow for always return evil for smashing?We know the popularplace remarks made when this subject comes up, remarks which always add up to the same thing we shouldnt struggle against the powers that-be we shouldnt resist authority we shouldnt try to rise above our station any action which doesnt conform to authority is romantic any effort not based on past experience is doomed to failure experience shows that mans bent is always toward trouble, that there must(prenominal) be a strong hand to hold him in check, if not, there will be anarchy.There are still people who go on mumbling these melancholy old saws, the people who say, Its only human whenever a more or less repugnant act is pointed out to them, the people who glut themselves on chansons realistes these are the people who accuse existentialism of being too gloomy, and to such an extent that I wonder whether they ar e complaining about it, not for its pessimism, but much rather its optimism. Can it be that what really scares them in the doctrine I shall try to present here is that it leaves to man a possibility of choice? To answer this question, we must re-examine it on a strictly philosophical externalisee. What is meant by the term existentialism?Most people who use the word would be rather untune if they had to explain it, since, now that the word is all the rage, even the work of a musician or painter is being called existentialist. A gossip columnist in Clartes signs himself The Existentialist, so that by this time the word has been so stretched and has taken on so broad a meaning, that it no longer means anything at all. It seems that for trust of an advanced-guard doctrine ,analogous to surrealism, the kind of people who are eager for scandal and flurry turn to this philosophy which in other respects does not at all serve their purposes in this sphere. Actually, it is the least scand alous, the most austere of doctrines. It is intended strictly for specialists and philosophers. Yet it can be defined easily. What complicates matters is that there are two kinds of existentialists initiatory, those who are Christian. among whom I would include Jaspers and Gabriel Marcel, both Catholic and on the other hand the atheistic existentialists among whom I class Heidegger, and then the French existentialists and myself.What they have in common is that they think that existence inserts essence, or, if you prefer, that subjectivity must be the starting point. Just what does that mean? Let us consider some object that is manufactured, for example, a criminal record or a papercutter here is an object which has been made by an artisan whose inspiration came from a archetype. He referred to the concept of what a paper-cutter is and likewise to a known method of production, which is part of the concept, something which is, by and large, a routine.Thus, the paper-cutter is at once an object produced in a certain way and, on the other hand, one loss a specific use and one can not postulate a man who produces a paper-cutter but does not know what it is used for. Therefore, let us say that, for the paper-cutter, essence-that is, the ensemble of both the production routines and the properties which enable it to be both produced and defined-precedes existence. Thus, the presence of the paper-cutter or book in front of me is determined. Therefore, we have here a technical view of the world whereby it can be said that production precedes existence.When we conceive God as the Creator, He is generally thought of as a superior sort of artisan. Whatever doctrine we may be considering, whether one like that of Descartes or that of Leibniz, we always grant that will more or less follows understanding or, at the very least, accompanies it, and that when God creates He knows exactly what he is creating. Thus, the concept of man in the mind of God is comparable to the concept of a paper-cutter in the mind of the manufacturer, and, following certain techniques and a conception, God produces man, just as the artisan, following a definition and a technique, makes a paper-cutter. Thus, the singular man is the realization of a certain concept in the divine intelligence.In the eighteenth century, the atheism of the philosophers discarded the idea of God, but not so much for the notion that essence precedes existence. To a certain extent, this idea is found everywhere we find it in Diderot, in Voltaire, and even in Kant. Man has a human nature this human nature, which is the concept of the human, is found in all men, which means that each man is a particular example of a universal concept, man. In Kant, the result of this universality is that the wild-man, the natural man, as well as the bourgeois, are circumscribed by the same definition and have the same raw material qualities.Thus, here too the essence of man precedes the historical existence that we find in nature. Atheistic existentialism, which I represent, is more coherent. It states that if God does not exist, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, a being who exists before he can be defined by any concept, and that this being is man, or, as Heidegger says, human reality. What is meant here by saying that existence precedes essence? It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself. If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be. Thus, there is no human nature, since there is no God to conceive it. Not only is man what he conceives himself to be, but he is also only what he wills himself to be after this thrust toward existence.Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself. Such is the first principle of existentialism. It is also what is called subje ctivity, the name we are labeled with when charges are brought against us. just now what do we mean by this, if not that man has a greater dignity than a stone or table? For we mean that man first exists, that is, that man first of all is the being who hurls himself toward a future and who is conscious of imagining himself as being in the future.Man is at the start a plan which is aware of itself, rather than a patch of moss, a piece of garbage, or a cauliflower nothing exists prior to this plan there is nothing in heaven man will be what he will have planned to be. Not what he will trust to be. Because by the word will we generally mean a conscious decision, which is subsequent to what we have already made of ourselves. I may want to belong to a political party, lay aside a book, get married but all that is only a manifestation of an earlier, more spontaneous choice that is called will. But if existence really does precede essence, man is responsible for what he is. Thus, existe ntialisms first move is to make every man aware of what he is and to make the full responsibility of his existence rest onhim. And when we say that a man is responsible for himself, we do not only mean that he is responsible for his own individuality, but that he is responsible for all men. The word subjectivism has two meanings, and our opponents play on the two. Subjectivism means, on the one hand, that an individual chooses and makes himself and, on the other, that it is impossible for man to transcend human subjectivity. The second of these is the essential meaning of existentialism. When we say that man chooses his own self, we mean that every one of us does likewise but we also mean by that that in making this choice he also chooses all men. In fact, in creating the man that we want to be, there is not a single one of our acts which does not at the same time create an image of man as we think he ought to be. To choose to be this or that is to affirm at the same time the value of what we choose, because we can never choose evil. We always choose the good, and nothing can be good for us without being good for all.If, on the other hand, existence precedes essence, and if we grant that we exist and fashion our image at one and the same time, the image is valid for everybody and for our whole age. Thus, our responsibility is much greater than we might have supposed, because it involves all mankind. If I am a workingman and choose to join a Christian trade-union rather than be a communist, and if by being a member I want to show that the best thing for man is resignation, that the kingdom of man is not of this world, I am not only involving my own case-I want to be resigned for everyone. As a result, my action has involved all humanity. To take a more individual matter, if I want to marry, to have children even if this marriage depends solely on my own circumstances or passion or wish, I am involving all humanity in monogamy and not merely myself. Therefore, I am responsible for myself and for everyone else. I am creating a certain image of man of my own choosing. In choosing myself, I choose man.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Effect of Culture in International Business

socialisation is an of the essence(predicate) better of International Business. Culture is defining the collection of values, beliefs, behaviours, customs and attitudes of the member in the society. Culture is the behaviour that nation proceed in the community. The characteristic of culture is in like manner reflects learned behaviour that is transmitted from one member to an other in society. There are also radical elements cultures such as social structure, talking to and religious. So the overseaser who wants to operate the business at the overseas market admit to understand the culture at the topical anaesthetic market to become successful. In this report also compare between the resemblingities of culture between two countries such as Thailand-Malaysia and different in culture between China and United States.The term Culture can be can be defined in more than 160 ways. jibe to (Terpstra and David 1985) they proposed the meaning of culture in international Managemen t context based on Hostedes definition is refers to the group of people in the society of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spacial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects. Culture is symbolic converse. Some of its symbols include a groups skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, and motives. The meanings of the symbols are learned and deliberately from the generation to generation.Culture is also the collective programming of communicating for people in the community to understand such as language and behaviour and also to make the connection by communication with other community. Culture is one of the important parts of International business undertaking Importing and Exporting in foreign markets. So the organisation that operating international have to understand the differences in values and ethical behaviour for the organisation to work efficient in the international markets. Many organis ations lost the opportunities due to the lack of mind of international markets.Characteristics of Culture Culture is the set of values, attitudes, beliefs, behaviour. The society culture are describes the behaviour and rules which determine the way of how the organisation operate in the community. Culture is also reflects learned behaviour that is transmitted from one member to another in society. Culture is also the adaptive because the effect from the external environment such as multinational international business, technology and tourism. Also the improvement of communication such as mobile phone and internet with the low cost which allow people and organisations developed greater cross cultural exchange between the organisations.The basic elements of Culture in international business are favorable Structure actors line Religion The Social structure is the cultures beliefs about the role in community. The organisations predominately how to work with distributively other i n the organisation. Social attitude is reflected in the importance of how to work together in the organisations.Language Language is a primary cultural in the society because it is very important for societys members to communicate between members. There are over 3,000 languages and as many as 10,000 in worldwide.Religion is also the important part of society. Religion influences the attitudes members in the community towards work, investment, consumption and responsibility. For example Thailand Languages in Thailand The Thai language is the main language in Thailand also there is several regional languages spoke as well. Other languages spoken in Thailand are Chinese, Lao, Malay and Mon-Khmer, while English is later becoming more predominate in affair of international. I Thailand, English is also now becoming the second language in secondary school and universities. Thai family & CultureHierarchical Society . Thailand organisation is respect hierarchical relationships. . Social r elationships are defined as person is the leader being superior and make the decision for the other members in the organisation. . Management teams are superior to employees, alder employees to the younger employees, and bosses to their subordinates. . When Thai organisation meeting the outsider, they will immediately try to place outsider within a hierarchy so they know how the outsider should be treated. . This is often done by asking what might be seen as very personal questions in other cultures. . Status can be determined by clothing and general appearance, age, job, education, family name, and social connections.Etiquette & Customs in ThailandMeeting In business . The wai is the handed-down form of greeting, given by the person of lower status to the person of higher status. So in the business is normally visitor will be greeding before the host. . Thais generally use first rather than surnames, with the honorific title Khun before the name. This is the very appropriate polit e way and very good perplex to do the business.Relationships & Communication Thai people prefer to do the business with the people whom they respect. The Thai people also very concern about trust. So itll require the foreigner who wants to do the business in Thailand have to follow the way of Thai culture and do not rushing to do the business. invariably be respectful to each other when dealing the business with the others as it can leads to smoothly relationship in doing the business.. Thai communication is formal and non-verbal communication is often more important than verbal communication. . Rank is always been respectful. The eldest person in the organisation will be the most respectful from the other members in the organisation. . It is difficult for most Thais to say no, so you must be cognizant of their non- verbal communication. . Also body language is also important to do the business in Thailand. Because body language can separateing about how professional the outsi der are. FaceThe concept of saving face is important in Thai society. So to do business in Thailand, Thai people will do anything to prevent loss of face. For example, normally to avoiding confrontation and rather choosing to tell others what they want to hear rather than dealing immediately. So to Criticising someone in public and breaking the promises are various ways that unpermitted in Thailand.Thailand is a captivating and very complex country, because Thailand has history of religious for centurys philosophy, immigrant know-how and wisdom coming from foreign trade and commerce. Due to the culture complexity, which make it very catchy to understand from the foreigner to doing business in Thailand. The international business might loss their opportunities to operate the manufacture in Thailand because lack of knowledge about local culture.The answer to the question whether cultural similarities would lead to greater trade among countries is both yes and no. Logically, cultural similarities will make trade easier for each other because of the joint understanding between both countries. But thats not often case for all countries. Similarities in culture sometimes would lead to copyright and seat claims. This is why there are two answers for the question. Examples will be given to support each answer respectively.Malaysia and Indonesia is example of countries that share an identical culture amongst each other. Both countries are located geographically in the South East Asia region. Both of these countries are often called siblings due to its size. The Malay language is an Austronesian language spoken not only by Malaysians but all Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines and Singapore. It is also very similar to Indonesian, known locally as Bahasa Indonesia. Other than having an almost identical language, there are other cultures such as uniforms and traditional music instrument that are also similar.Sharing almos t identical and similar cultures dont usually work well for both of this country. In recent years, disputes and misunderstanding come to pass on problems such as claims of traditional copyright and territory claim has marked a black patch on the relationship of both countries. match to (Schonhardt, 2009) Similarities in culture, language and religious customs should make Indonesia and Malaysia good neighbors. But long-running spats over everything from territorial boundaries to cultural ownership of culinary dishes, dances, instruments and even Malaysias national anthem have over the years hampered ties. This directly effects not only trades between the two countries but also gives a pessimistic view for foreign investors who are planning to invest heavily in both countries.Things arent always sour for both of the countries. Having a similar culture also helped both of the country in trading and making business with each other much more easier. For example, the number of imported maids from Indonesia to Malaysia is increasing by day. Indonesian maids induce it easier to adapt to Malaysian culture, as it is not much of a difference with the culture back at home. Culture in this sense includes language, food and environment. It is account that in the year 2007, two leaders of both countries has signed a memorandum of understanding to establish a joint trade and investment direction to address issues and recommend measures to enhance bilateral trade and investment. www.indlawnews.com, 25 January 2008 This in particular shows how countries with similar culture can work together.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Philippines: The jejemon fever Essay

Whats the texting capital of the world? Its the Philippines. Wherever you establish your eyes in the streets, in schools, in malls, you can see various people giving a lot attention in pressing the keypads of their phones. Its been a habit for most of us Filipinos that on our leisure time, we spend it through texting. Admit it that blush during class discussion some teachers and students usually look at their phones to see if someone had texted them. Texting here in the Philippines to begin with was so single. We just shortened the words by sometimes omitting the vowels until a new style of texting was introduced and apply the jejemon way. Jejemon is a collective term for those persons who use a diametrical kind of spelling and pronunciation on our side and Filipino words especially when texting. They atomic number 18 peculiar with their clothes.The term jejemon actually came from two words jeje and mon. Comp bed to us ordinary Filipinos, jejemons have a different language. T hey as well as have a unique first rudiment called the jejebeth. It is quite different in our English alphabet because it contains both letters and numbers on their alphabet. They dont mind the grammatical incorrectness of their sentences. It is very(prenominal) hard to read a text message of a jejemon. You would need minutes or even hours to understand what they are trying to say. Its give care it still need to decode these sentences to fully understand them. Like a jejebuster, Filipinos should forgo too much exposure of this language to the young person especially now, even Grade 5 or Grade 6 students in elementary are already exposed in mobile phones and are so much fund of texting. Even before the dominion of jejemos, spelling of words is so much affected already by our simple way of texting. Filipino texters already have a different language.Could you imagine what would happen to the proficiency of the youth on the English language if this rising number of jejemons contin uously increased? Well, its simply a massive decreased on our adaptness in the English language especially when speaking and writing poems say for example. As time goes by some Filipinos who continuously use this language, the probability is for us to be fund of it that they might forget the real spelling of any jejemon word using our profess alphabet on the English one. It may also result to less job opportunities because upon using this language even only texting, the way we speak ca be greatly affected. There is a less chance for them to be hired because their interviewer might not understand what they talking about. Our English education is also at sake.Perhaps, because of these jejemons, our education might be destabilized. But in fairness to the government, the Department of Education already implemented some training to English teachers, mete out quality English books and provide remedial classes to students. Department of Education officials and workers also coordinate wit h the parents of our students to encourage the youth in using proper English. Thousands of years ago, English was introduced to Filipino ancestors by several teachers brought by the United States by the end of the Spanish era in 1989. It was widely used until such time that it became the moderate of instruction in all schools. This trend was passed on from generation to generation which made Filipinos at present proficient in the said language. In the foresightful run, the Filipinos adeptness in speaking and writing using English as the medium had helped the country attract foreign investors to support its pains thus helping most of the population overcome hunger and poverty.This is one of the reasons why English is retained as the medium for communication next to the guinea pig language, Filipino. Perhaps, jejemon might also cause a decrease on the Philippines economy to have a greater economy, we need many investors and perhaps because of jejemons, the investors we are expecti ng to go in the Philippines would lessen. They might be distracted on the way jejemons dress up, speak and write. They may be offended especially our American investors because its alike that their language had been disrespected due to the alternations on their alphabet and would be discouraged because of our poor proficiency in English the universal language.According to the Roman Catholic Church, the assume of jejemons is fine. It will just be gone as time goes by. We cant do anything about it because it is one way of showing our freedom of expression. However, the blood line of jejemons is just like the birth of bacteria. If we wont kill it at once, it will multiply as fast as it could until it is already countless said(prenominal) when a person has a cancer at stage 1, could you like this to reach stage 5 or would you cure it at once. Since, there are still so many Filipinos especially Filipino texters who are not yet so much influenced by this new style of texting, we coul d still stop the domination of jejemons.Filipinos should not allow it to reach its final stage wherein almost all, including the old and young speak and write words in a different way from what we are grown up with. Our national language Filipino is our identities. Jejemons worsens further our English proficiency today. Because of being popular, it is readily accepted by the youth which is very alarming. It influences a big part of our society where language means a lot. The distraction it creates on the technicalities of proper writing and forms of communication. This should be stopped before the worst thing happens this is the passing of this form of informal language to the future generation.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Related Literature and Review of Related Studies for Fertilizer Essay

Commonly known as Styrofoam that is one of the most widely employ type of plastics. It is a steady plastic created from erethylene and benzine that terminate be injected, extruded, or blow molded making it a very useful and versatile manufacturing material. It is also a rigid, gauze-like thermoplastic, which is present in solid or glassy state at dominion temperature. But, when heated above its glass transition temperature, it turns into a form that flows and toilette be easily used for molding and extrusion. It becomes solid again when it cools off.This property of polystyrene is used for casting it into molds with fine detail. Pure polystyrene polymer is colorless and badly with limited flexibility. Polystyrene is hard and brittle and has a density of 1. 050 g/cm3. It is represented by the chemical formula, C8H8. It have very low bear on strengths of less than 0. 5ft-lb. commercially available impact polystyrene grades tail be obtained with values of 1. 0 4. 0 ft-lb. Gene rally, polystyrenes ar not produced with greater than 15% total rubber because of polymerization processing constraints.Nevertheless, impact properties put up be increased substantially with bulge by additional rubber by the proper control of rubber ingredient size, percentage of grafting, cross-linking, and percentage of gel. Flexural strengths for polystyrenes can be obtained from 5000 to 18000psi and ar also decreased by the addition of rubber and other additives to the polystyrene. Elongations can be obtained from 1% for crystal polystyrene to 100% for some impact polystyrene grades. Eggshells The calcium change is the one that gives egg shell its hardy strength a common substance found in rocks.The team found that calcium carbonate do up almost 98 per cent of an egg shell. The remaining two per cent comprises proteins which act as the cement to hold the calcium carbonate together. The constituent(a) matter of eggshell and shell membranes contain proteins as major const ituents with small amounts of carbohydrates and lipids (Burley and Vadehra, 1989). Bronsch and Diamantstein (1965) analyzed uronic acid in eggshells and reported a signi? cant correlation amongst the uronic acid content and the breaking strength of the shell. Uronic acid is a constituent sugar of glycosaminoglycan.Under the characterization measurements investigated, it was found that the eggshell pore structures of the two biomaterials pass away to a typical Type II, indicating that they should be basically characteristic of nonporous materials or materials with macropores or open voids. Further, the chemical composition of the resulting eggshell particle was potently associated with the presence of carbonate minerals from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. In contrast to the resulting eggshell membrane particle, the presence of functional groups of amines and amides was observable because of its chemical composition of fibrous proteins.From the isotherm information of methylene blue at 25 C, the Freundlich model yielded a somewhat better fit than the Langmuir model. The adsorption isotherms revealed the eggshell biosorbents could only uptake the basic tinge of less than 1. 0 mg/g in aqueous medium, which was attributed to their poor pore properties. Oyster Shell Oyster-shell are used as construction materials, in particular as a mixture for concrete, it is required to quantify the salinity content of pull together-shell, which is the basis of limiting the amount of oyster-shell in the mixture. The salinity content in oyster-shells turns out to be approximately 0. 5%, derived from the proportion of the whole weight of oyster-shell to the total amount of chloride ions (Cl) pertaining to the relevant provision (Yoon, 2000). Converting this to the regulation value of the chloride ions, 0. 3 kgf/m3, the amount of oyster-shell per 1 m3should not be greater than 85. 7kgf. Therefore, assuming that granular materials in the concrete are 700800 kgf/ m3, oyster-shells should not begreater than 10% in the granular materials to preventthe salt damage. Oyster-shell is entirely comprise of CaCO3 (approximately 96%) and other minerals of trivial amount.Various oyster-shells due to sources and individual characteristics are almost similar in the chemical composition. The mineral phase of calcium carbonate turns out to be calcite. Related Studies Foreign Xu, Yi Jiang, Linhua Xu, Jinxia Li, Yang (2012) pointed out that mix proportion parameters of expanded polystyrene (EPS) lightweight aggregate concrete are analyzed by exploitation Taguchis approach. The density, compressive strength and stress-strain behavior were tested. The optimal mixture of EPS lightweight aggregate concrete was selected among experiments under conside symmetryn to manufacture the lightweight hollow bricks.The results show that EPS window pane has the most significant effect on compressive strength of EPS lightweight aggregate concrete, then water and cement ra tio, while the content of cement and sand ratio play a comparatively less important part. The relationship between density and compressive strength of EPS lightweight aggregate concrete is proposed as f. sub. c = 2. 43 x gamma. sup. 2. 997 x 10. sup. -9. The legitimacy of the use of EPS lightweight bricks do by EPS lightweight aggregate concrete is confirmed.According to the study of Sohrab Veiseh1 and Ali A.Yousefi2 (2003) the heavy weight of bricks accounts for the great upsurge of construction and thus causes more vulnerability against earthquake forces. In the present work, it is, therefore, tried to reduce the density of the bricks, as well as improve caloric insulation properties. Polystyrene foam is one of the substances that is added to the stark naked materials of bricks, as a pore-forming material. The effect of PSF type and its content in the mix, and also the effect of firing process temperature of the bricks on density, water absorption and compressive strength, are investigated and discussed in this paper.Tests showed that by increasing the polystyrene foam additive, the compressive strength and density of the bricks decreases, though the water absorption increases. Therefore, it is necessary to specify the shipway for improvement and optimization of clay body so that by reducing the density, the strength of the brick is not reduced considerably. Adding even 2% of recycled polystyrene foam keeps the compressive strength of the resulted bricks as suitable for load bearing ordinary bricks according to the Iranian standard.Rassimi Abdul Ghani, Mohd Hanafiah Abidin, Ahmad Zafir Romli, Mohd Hariz Kamarudin, Zaleha Afandi and Muhamad Faizal Abd Halim (2010) of the Institute Of Science,Uitm,Malaysia pointed out that one of the worlds oldest waste into useful flooring materials. They made tiles from eggshells. Naming the tiles EPoSTi, they made composite tiles by combining polymers and chicken eggshells, an innovation from domestic waste. Explaining their work in an expo, the use of eggshells in micro size will increase the rigidity and stiffness of the composite, making it a suitable flooring material.This is due to the nature of eggshells which can be used as rigid particulate matter fillers of the tiles. The combination offers excellent impact resistance, as it is able to withstand force applied to it. In short, it is durable. According to the study of M. N. FreireI, II J. N. F. HolandaI (2000) in Brazil, the food pains generates every year huge amounts of eggshell waste, and a critical question is to find an adequate use for this waste. The aim of this work is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of a nonprocessed eggshell waste sample, as well as to investigate its use in wall tile paste.The sample was analyzed regarding to chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, morphology, particle size analysis, density, organic matter, soluble salts, and thermal analysis. The results indicated that t he eggshell waste sample rich in CaCO3 can be used as an alternative raw material in the production of wall tile materials. According to the study of Obrero, F. M. (2005) pointed out that there is possibility of producing ceramics from oyster shells. Powdered oyster shells were used quite of silica in the production of ceramics. The texture, color and durability were compared to those made with silica.Six kilograms of Vigan clay and 2. 5 kg of ball clay were mixed and soaked in water overnight. The following day, the mixture was kneaded and filtered twice. After this, one kilogram of powdered oyster shell was mixed with the kneaded mixture then kneaded again and filtered. The mixture was set(p) over Plaster of Paris for the water to be absorbed. The solidify mixture was then rolled and compressed to let the air escape from the spaces inside the solidified mixture. After this, the mixture was molded, air dried for four days and fired in a furnace. Three trials were made at differen t temperatures 900oC, 950oC and 1000oC.It was found out that the texture of the experimental set-up is better than the control set-up. It was also found out that the color of the experimental set-up is comparable to the control set-up. Tests of durability of the ceramics, which were done at SLU College of plan Laboratory, revealed that the experimental set-up is more durable than the control set-up. This proves that oyster shell can be utilized in the production of ceramics. It also affirms that ceramics made using oyster shells are better than those produced using silica in terms of texture and durability.Gil-Lim Yoon, Byung-Tak Kim, Baeck-Oon Kim, Sang-Hun Han (2002) pointed out that possibility to recycle the waste as construction materials, chemical and machinelike characteristics of crushed oyster-shell were investigated. Chemical and microstructure analyses showed that oyster-shells are predominantly composed of calcium carbonate with rare impurities. Compressive strength t ests for soil mortar specimens with varying blending ratio of cement, water, sand, and oyster-shell were compared with normal cement mortar.There was no signi? cant reduction in the compressive strength up to 40% of dosages of oyster-shell instead of sand. The experimental results demonstrate that oyster-shells can be resources of fresh calcareous materials and effective in replacement of sand, indicating promising reusable construction materials. Local Cecilia Amor Fenol, Maria Riza Berna Sabate, Jamie Kathleen Sy, Reah Grace Camongol and Nicole Mejia (2008) pointed out that egg shells can be used as an alternative for sand in making a hollow block.It is more effective and shows lesser cracks as it is dropped from a height of 2 feet. It can be used to lessen the expenses and at the same time we helped the environment by recycling these egg shells. According to our research, the reason why egg shells are effective in making hollow block is because it contains Calcium Carbonate that gives hardness and strength. We also concluded that this egg shell hollow block can be used to support building so that when earthquake strikes our country, its strength and durability will show.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Racial Inequality Essay

In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout, the narrator, asks her father, Atticus, are we going to win it? to which he replies, No h atomic number 53y (Lee 87). Atticus knew his hometown of Maycomb would neer emerge from its racial inequality, but he did invariablyything he could to pr heretoforet it. Racial inequality is the unjust treatment of minority groups, such as African Americans. magical spell some believe America can achieve true racial and social equality, America is unable to rid itself of racism because it is a human quality for people to group together with those whom they share similarities, and years of unequal opportunities for minorities go away not be forgotten.Certainly, it is human nature to assemble into groups. The Civil War began because the blue and Southern states started to develop different political and ethical beliefs, thus slowly growing apart from each other. The most profound of these beliefs was the veracity of enslaving African Americans. once African Americans, tortured and neglected, were freed from slavery and finally recognized as American citizens, a new social ladder was created, where blacks were typically found at the bottom. This is reference in the phrase Only the Accused Were Innocent, where author David Oshinsky writes about the Scottsboro trial of 1931 when nine black teenage boys were accused of raping two white women, As news of their story spread across the country, a huge crowd, chanting Give em to us and Let those niggers out, threatened to storm the Scottsboro jug (Oshinsky 1). These statements uttered by white men allude to the fact that prejudice against blacks is a negative factor, causing different associations within society.In this situation, no one can deny that African Americans, as a whole, will always remember the wrong that has been done to them by society. For example, in the article plausive go through Harms Society, Martin Luther King Jr. is quoted, Segregation scars the soul of both the segregator and the segregated (Canady 6). Segregation gave African Americans scars thatwill never fully heal.Also, in the article Only the Accused Were Innocent, the truly innocent Scottsboro Boys, some found guilty, some found not-guilty, continued to struggle through life, many of them returning to jail, and even one committing suicide. One of the nine boys says, Everywhere I go, it seems like Scottsboro is throwed up in my face I dont believe Ill ever live it down (Oshinsky 5).In final consideration, African Americans dealt with racial inequality for years, and they continue to face unjust treatment. A typical white man is laughable when he sees a black man walking along a lonely street at night, and a typical black man is scared when he notices an unfamiliar white man strolling toward his front door. These are small ways barriers are set up between races. Maya Angelou once said, Ive intentional that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but pe ople will never forget how you made them feel. This statement is true when realizing blacks will not forget about segregation. Racial inequality might have diminished, but it will never fully disappear.Works CitedCanady, Charles T. Affirmative Action Harms Society. Affirmative Action. Ed. Leora Maltz. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 2000. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 6 Jan. 2015. Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York Harper Collins, 1960. Print. Oshinsky, David M. Only the Accused Were Innocent. The New York Times 3 Apr. 1994 1-6. Print.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Character Motivations in Antigone Essay

The main characters in Sophocles drama, Antig unity, are Antigone herself, the p impersonates tragic heroine and Antigones uncle and King of Thebes, Creon. Both characters are ruled by tidy motivations and beliefs however, they differ from one character to the next. Antigones motivation is love for her family- she puts it above only else. In fact, she is willing to sacrifice her life to defend that love.Antigone goes to great lengths to go under her deceased brother, who according to an purchase order issued by King Creon, died in dishonor, consequently making it illegal for anyone to bury his body. Through her actions to comply with her motivations, it is revealed that Antigones actions are also fueled by her strong beliefs that, first, the gods laws are more powerful than any law made by man, and second, that it is better to die a heroic dying than a cowardly one.Throughout the play, Antigone stands firm on these beliefs by standing up for them even through her death as demon strated through the side by side(p) parley in which she admits her crime, and voices her beliefs to Creon It was not Zeus who published this decree, nor have the powers who rule among the dead imposed such laws as this upon mankind nor could I think that a decree of yours- A man- could override the laws of heaven unwritten and unchangingFor me to meet this doom (death) is little grief But when my mothers son lay dead, had I neglected him and left him there unburied, That would have caused me grief this causes me none (437-459). This scene illustrates the essence of Antigones character. Shes defending her crime of burying her brother, so demonstrating that she is motivated by the love that she has for her family.Shes further justifying her act by stating that Creons law is not the law that she feels she must adhere to- she follows the gods laws, another one of her guiding beliefs, and finally, shes not only accepting her impending doom, but actually welcoming it because shes dying defending her beliefs, therefore dying a heroic death rather than dying in cowardice. On the other hand, Creon is also motivated by love however, his love is love for his country, rather than his family. He puts country above all else, including his family- hes willing to do whatever he needs to do to make sure that Thebes remains powerful. In order to achieve this goal he demands loyalty from his subjects, once again, family included he rules by intimidation, and is very proud. In fact, pride is another one of his major(ip) motivations. For these reasons, his character is a feared leader.First of all, the fact that he issues that his nephew cannot be buried shows that- one, he demands loyalty, even over loyalty to the gods, and two, he defends his country over his family. He continues displaying his beliefs when he doesnt revoke the edict even after his wife, and niece clearly disagree with it. Creons pride continues to take precedent when he begins falsely accusatory his subject s, and acting rashly with little thought. Creons character, while a complex character is strongly represented in much of his dialogue, perhaps this passage of dialogue between Creon and the prophet Teiresias best captures his essence. Sir, all of you, like bowmen at a target, let fly your shafts at me. Now they have turned even diviners on me By that tribe I am bought and sold and stowed away on board.Go, make your profits, drive your trade in Lydian silver or in Indian gold, but him you shall not bury in a tomb, no, not though Zeus own eagles eat the corpse and bear the carrion to their masters can buoy Not even so, for fear of that defilement, will I permit his burial-for well I know that mortal man cannot defile the gods (994-1006). Through this single quote, Creon demonstrates all of his predominate qualities hes accusing Teiresias of bribery, therefore, acting before thinking, he wont repeal his edict even though he admits that the edict does defy Zeus, thus illustrating his p ride. He likes being in power of a powerful state, so much so that he is blind to his own pride, and is beauteous with ruling by intimidation and demanding loyalty from his subjects.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

What legal rights (if any) does Milesofpaper Ltd have in respect of payment for the stationery and office equipment??

IntroductionAs Mr Frank and Mr impression entered into the trim back with Milesofpaper Ltd before the incorporation of Wear boaters Ltd, it would appear that the contract was entered into under the coalition of Pleasure Boats & Co and thereby governed by the Partnership Act (PA) 1890. In order for a mateship to be created, there must be two or more persons that conduct line with a view to profit. Partnerships are defined under s. 1(1) PA 1890 as a relation subsisting between persons carrying on business in common with a view of profit. Mr Frank and Mr seal had clearly entered into a partnership as they carried on business (pleasure boat building and repairing) with a view to profit Khan v Miah, Ahad and Miah1. Unlike companies, partnerships do non film a separate corporate personality and are instead regarded as a collection of individuals or persons.2 This means that each partner is jointly liable, without limit, for the debts and obligations of the partnership incurred wh ile he or she is a partner (s. 9 PA 1890). Mr Frank and Mr Stamp allow for therefore both be personally liable for any debts the partnership incurred M issue heavy Associates Ltd v Zahid3. In considering whether Milesofpaper has any rights in respect of remuneration for the stationary and office equipment, it lead need to be considered whether Mr Frank and Mr Stamp are personally liable the contact is capable of binding the partnership.Given that both partners entered into the contract with Milesofpaper, they will be deemed to have had actual authority to bind the firmly. S. 5 PA 1890 states that every partner is an agent of the firm whose acts bind the firm and his partners, unless the partner acting had no authority to do so. Given that both Mr Frank and Mr Stamp would have the authority to enter into the contract with Milesofpaper, it is clear that their actions would have bound the firm. However, because the contract was entered into under the go withs name Wearboaters L td, it is doubtful that this particular movement will be binding against the partners. It is noned under s. 6 PA 1890 that an act relating to the business of the firm must be done in the firm name or any other manner to be binding on the firm and all its partners. Since the act relating to the business of the firm was done in the name of the new unincorporated partnership, it is unlikely that the partnership will be liable for the debt. Yet, the individual who entered into the contract may be liable for the debt as their get private act4 Sangster v Biddulph5. Furthermore, even though Wearboaters Ltd has now been incorporated, Milesofpaper Ltd will not be able to enforce the pre-incorporated contract. The reason for this is that before incorporation, the company is not commensurate to enter into contract in its get name as it has no legal entity6.As such, Wearboaters Ltd will not be capable of being sued for the pre-incorporation contract that was entered into between Mr Frank, M r Stamp and Milesofpaper. In Re English & Colonial Product Co7 it was held that a company was not liable to pay for services and expenses incurred by a solicitor pre-incorporation as the company was not in existence at the time when the expenses were incurred. In addition, it was also held in CIT v City mill around Distilleries (P) Ltd8 that a company has no status prior to its incorporation and can have no income or liability. As the company had not been incorporated, Mr Frank and Mr Stamp will be classed as promoters who will have purported to enter into a contract by or on behalf of Wearboaters Ltd9. As promoters, Mr Frank and Mr Stamp will be personally liable unless the contract states otherwise (s. 51 Companies Act (CA) 2006). In Phonogram Ltd v Lane10 it was held that a promoter of a company was personally liable to revert a debt that was made on the companys behalf under s. 51 CA 2006 (previously 2. 36 CA 1985) even though the claimant was unaware that the company was not in existence at the time the contract was entered into. Overall, it is likely that Milesofpaper will have a claim against Mr Frank and Mr Stamp in respect of payment for the stationery and office equipment.What legal rights (if any) do Mr Frank and Mr Stamp have in respect to payment for compensation for the destroyed boats and equipment?Once a company has been incorporated, it is separate and distinct from its members as shown in Salomon v Salomon11. Here, it was made clear that a company shall be solely liable for any losses or mishaps that arise within the company. In accordance with this principle, a company has the capacity to enter into contracts and sue and be sued in its own name. If the company suffers a break of contract, it is the company who will be able to sue on the contract for breach and thereby seek to take the appropriate remedial action12. As business assets are owned by the company, it is the company who is responsible for insuring them. Because Mr Frank had in sured the assets of the business under the partnership, the assets that have been transferred to the company will no longer be insured. This is because Mr Frank does not have an insurable affair in the companys assets and a new contract would need to have been entered into between the company and the insurer. This was identified in Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd13 where Macaura was the owner of a timber estate who took out an insurance policy in his own name. Most of the timber was destroyed by fire but Macaura could not claim for loss of goods as he did not have an insurable interest in the timber. It was held that a person cannot claim for loss of goods that are owned by another party. As the company owned the timber, Macaura could not make a claim.Since Wearboaters Ltd is the new owner of the assets, Mr Frank will not be able to make a claim as they no longer have an insurable interest in the assets. When the assets were transferred a new insurance policy should have been t aken out in Wearboaters Ltds name. As Mr Frank and Mr Stamp have failed to take out a new insurance policy, they will be deemed to have breached their directors duties and will be found personally liable for the loss that has been caused to the business. It cannot be said that Mr Frank and Mr Stamp were promoting the success of the company as required under s. 172 CA 2006 and will therefore be liable for any losses incurred Re Duomatic14. This is an exception to the rule in Salomon that a company is separate and distinct from its members and thus allows the corporate veil to be lifted in authentic circumstances. In addition, Mr Frank and Mr Stamp also breached their duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence under s. 174 CA 2006 as shown in Secretary of read for Trade and Industry v Goldberg15. Although the courts are generally reluctant to lift the corporate veil, they will do so when common sense and reality essential it16 and when there is a powerful argument of pri nciple for lifting the corporate veil where the facts require it17. It could be said that this is to apply in the instant situation as Mr Frank and Mr Stamp should have insured the assets of the business as they were the first directors of Wearboaters Ltd.The courts will only pierce the corporate veil in very express mail circumstances, however, and if Mr Frank and Mr Stamp can demonstrate that there was no evidence of fraud, illegality or a sham or if the company is a mere frontal concealing the true facts (ss. 213-215 of the Insolvency Act 1986, s. 993 CA 2006 and s. 15 of the play along Directors Disqualification Act 1986), then it is unlikely that they will be found personally liable Adams v Cape Industries plc18. As noted by Talbot veil piecing is not an end in itself but a means to an end19. Therefore, unless the circumstances of the case allow rise to fraud or a pre-existing obligation, the courts will be unlikely to pierce the veil in its entirety Pirelli Cable Holding N V v IRC20. It has been said that the courts will go to great lengths to avoid any obvious penetration of the corporate veil, whilst still making the sort of inquiries that would be satisfied by just such a process21. This prevents the doctrine from being completely undermined, whilst also protecting the public Millam v Print Factory (London) 1991 Ltd22. The veil will only be lifted in exceptional circumstances23 so as to prevent individuals from being discouraged from investing in companies24. Overall, given that it Mr Frank and Mr Stamp appear to have made a genuine mistake in respect of the insurance, it is unlikely that they will be found personally liable. However, they will not be entitled to compensation for any loss suffered.BibliographyText Books A Dignam and J Lowry. Company Law (Core Text Series). (Oxford OUP Oxford, 2012).D cut. S Mason. and C Ryan. Mason, French & Ryan on Company Law, (Oxford Oxford University Press, 2013).L Jones. Introduction to Business Law. (Oxford OUP Oxford, 2013).L Talbot, L. Critical Company Law, (London Routledge, 2007).P P S Gonga. A Text Book of Company Law., (London Chand, 2002).Journal Articles S Ghaiwal, S. Chandler v Cape plc Is there a chink in the corporate veil? (2012) Health and Safety at Work Newsletter, vol 18, no 3, 487-499.V V Watcher. The Corporate Veil (2007) New Law Journal, vol. 990, no. 7218, 22-27.Legislation Partnership Act 1890Cases Adams v Cape Industries plc 1990 Ch 433CIT v City Mills Distilleries (P) Ltd (1996) 2 SCC 375Khan v Miah, Ahad and Miah 2001 All ERMacaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd 1925 AC 619Millam v Print Factory (London) 1991 Ltd 2007 EWCA Civ 322M Young Legal Associates Ltd v Zahid 2006 EWCA Civ 613Pirelli Cable Holding NV v IRC 2006 UKHL 4Phonogram Ltd v Lane (1982) QB 938Re Duomatic 1969 2 Ch 365Re English & Colonial Product Co (1906) 2 Ch 435Salomon v Salomon 1987 AC 22Sangster v Biddulph 2005 PNLR 33Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Goldberg 2004 1 BCLC 557

Monday, May 20, 2019

Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay

Executive summarygenus genus genus capital of France baguette is a French inspired Korean bakehouse, which started in 1945, and it started off as a small bakehouse. genus genus Paris baguet is now a steeply competitory bakehouse that has 32 stores worldwide and 4 stores in capital of capital of Singapore. This report is to advice Paris baguet on matters that ar associated with effective marketing for its crossroad, out, promotion and expense. This report pull up stakesing talk active things like, what Marco-environment that will affect the bakeshop exertion as well as what microenvironment that will affect our organization.This report will excessively be explain what point of intersection positioning and perceptual mapping is and with the aid of perceptual mapping it will decorate the product positioning of Paris Baguette against their competitors. The recommendation for the report is to advertise Paris Baguette on television or the newspaper to increase snitch aw argonness. In addition, to open more(prenominal)(prenominal) branches in Singapore, as four stores is nothing comp ard to their competitors like chou Talk.BackgroundParis Baguette has started in 1945, called as Sang-mi-dang in Woongjin, Korea. They had moved Sang-mi-dang to Seoul in 1948. The president of the smart roach, Chang Sung Hur had changed the name of the company as Sam oral fissure General Food Company in 1968 and entered the franchise market as a general fodder company. In 1997, they beat decided to mystify product brand called Shany Cake hence, the Sam lip and Shany surface shown great impact in the bread indus try on.In gear up to strengthen their line of reasoning, they realized they need bakehouse brand so they established Paris Croissant in 1986 and they called it as Paris Baguette, which is a luxury French bakery brand. They pull in made first store at Gwanghwamun(Korea), one of the baffle that a lot of population in Korea. They had good success, kep t lucubrateing the stores, and had 100 stores in Korea in 1992. They did inaugural place in bakery industry in 1997, and they kept up(p) the 1st place all the way. In 2004, they decided to expand the stores overseas and opened first store in Shanghai. As a result, they drive around 3,200 stores in Korea alone. macro instruction Environment external forces that affect bakery industry2.1Demographic environmentThe condition demography refers to the study of human race on the basis of gender, age, race, income level, density, education, family size, occupation, etc. According to the data reports that released by Singapore government, the population of female residents is closelippedly equal to males. The main target customers of bakery industry ar consider as females because they argon most likely to have a sweet tooth.It blind drunks that there is still whatsoever room for improvement to draw off potential customers, such as males.Besides, an aging population and declining birth rate also has impact on bakery industry. The range in age from 5 to 35 is considered as main target customers in bakery industry. With the increase of elderly and decrease of children, consumers of bakery industry will be gradually decrease. In recite to close in more potential customers, bakery companies may launch new products that suitable for males and elders, such as salty bread with meat or soft bread, which deal be easily chew.2.2Political EnvironmentAs a country, which has been crown the most business-friendly scrimping all over the world for the previous 7 years, no one will doubt that Singapore government encourage the development of company. Policy support helps with company operation, such as decrease the business income tax- it will increase the profit of company. Singapore government increase the wages tax in redact to help poor muckle, thus, more customers will be able to afford bread. In addition, policies of childbirth rise and immigration also help to increase the poetry of consumers. Children are attract by lovely human face and sweet gustatory perception of desserts, Europeans and Ameri posteriors prefer bread instead of rice, and they should be regulars of bakeries. However, these policies also benefit other companies in bakery industry, and it will result in increasing of competitions. In order to hold the market share, the company may reduce the price of bread or launch more variety of bread.2.3 scotch EnvironmentEconomic factors are consists of inflations, taxation, involution rate, currency exchanges rate, depression, etc. Those factors will influence the purchasing major power and spending patterns of customers. If the interest rate increased, people would like to save their money in bank instead of spending them. That will result in decrease of buying power, thus, the profit of company will reduced also. Inflation also causes decrease of buying power. Inflation puts a lot of pressure on people, and they will decreas e day-by-day expenses, it may influence the bakery industry.Micro Environment forces that affect Paris Baguette2.4CompetitorsIn Singapore, wear down Talk considered as a competitor of Paris Baguette because both of these two brands are consists of bakery and caf. In comparison, Bread Talk is more famous and familiar than Paris Baguette because it is the local brand and it is plenty of branches. There are only four outlets of Paris Baguette, but more than 25 branches of Bread Talk in Singapore. The advantages of Paris Baguette are delicacy and variety of products. Delicate appearances of decorate and products attract many customers. The advantages of Bread Talk are its lower price and promotions. To compare these two brands, Paris Baguette is more suitable for yuppies, but Bread Talk is suitable for ordinary family.2.5CustomersThe customers positioning of Paris Baguette children, couples and 15 to 35-year-old females. Products of Paris Baguette are more expensive than other general bakery brands, thus, consumers of Paris Baguette should be well pay. Customers prefer caf of Paris Baguette, so they frequented braches in the afternoon, especially during the weekends.Macro environment forces that affect Paris BaguetteTwo of the Macro environment, which have affect Paris Baguette are the Economic environment and social-cultural environment. The economic environment affected the Paris Baguette franchises, which the production cost increased ascribable to the price of the oil and the grain increased. All the franchises have to pay more in order to purchase the ingredients. Besides, Paris Baguette in the Ameri stinkpot and China markets have faced some uncertain economic failure. This has cause quite a big impact to Paris Baguette. A wearied currency is the sign of a weak economy, and a weak economy leads to a weak nation. (Perot, N.D).In addition, the social-cultural environment, which affect Paris Baguette have to know the contrastive cultural food taste of the elect country, which mean they have to find out what type of products can increase the interest and Paris Baguette have to cooperate with it by creating the product the people like. Besides, for the aging people and woman will mother more attention to their own health and they prefer more on organic food. In order to aim a bigger market, Paris Baguette has to produce more organic and healthy products due to the healthy diet flow.Product Positioning.Product positioning is one of marketing techniques that promote products in the crush way to target audiences. The most important thing is to buy the product. It is quite similar with market partition as the product positioning is made of creating the message and involves the symbol and manipulation, which conclude display and packaging. In Paris baguette, they used 5methods for the product positioning. They are threat of new entrants (too much capital is not required for connector the bakery franchise market), bargaining power of sup pliers (the raw material is important for them in bakery industry and the materials like rice and flour), threat of substitute products (many other substitute products are exist such as flour based food, instant food, etc.For example, Starbucks is one of caf that makes high profit with substitute products), bargaining power of customers (They dont have difficulty to switch purchasing outlets because of standardized bakery products) and competitive opposition within an industry (there is intense competition in the market among other brands because of saturation. There does not have many firms within industry but big brands like Tour les Jour exist. There also have high exit barriers and hard to differentiate the strategic for each firm.).Perceptual mappingFrom the picture above, we can perceive that Paris Baguettes (PB) and Baker & Cook (B&C) has the high price and high quality compared to Sunshine bakery (SB). It is because PB and B&C uses very good quality and high cost for the i ngredients compared to SB. B&C is selling products slightly higher than PB is because of the companys regulation. Paris Baguette use the product positioning strategy, which is positioning by price/quality. This is because they want to make sure their customer cope with with their products and can consume their product is in high quality in other words mean the taste of the bread, the youthfulness and the crispiness of the bread. However, in order to produce a high quality product, they have to use high quality raw materials to produce their products such as the flour, butter, grain and other, which mean their products are in high quality and the price isslightly higher. The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for themselves. (Kroc, 1984)Marketing researchThe primary marketing research technique that I would recommend Paris Baguette to use for collecting information related to customer satisfaction is the survey method. The survey method is by far the most po pular of all the research method. Survey method is a list of brains that select individuals about their preferences, attitudes towards our product and buying behaviours. We would need to create the questionnaire that will record the data. Example of the survey question will beWhat is the first thing that comes into your mind when you think of Paris baguette? Do you admire our selection of bread?Which one of our product do you like best?How can we improve on our product?Are our prices reasonable?Are our staffs friendly?Is our branch location convenient for you?What new product would you like to try?What is your age group?Others-These questions will help Paris Baguette improve on their product and find out what their customers thinks about the organization and what new products they would like to see from Paris baguette. adept finding that I have found from the marketing research is that our shops location is inconvenient for people that are rushing. In addition, we open only at 1 0a.m, which is after the morning peak hour. Paris Baguette can make our stores more convenient for the working class by putting them near the MRT stations and start our stores before the morning peak hour. By opening our stores during peak hour we can attract people who have not ate their eat as they are rushing for work, and by putting our stores near an MRT. It would make it much more convenient for people to come to our stores to buy our product especially those who are rushing.Marketing liquefy Strategies of Paris BaguetteMarketing mix consists on the 4Ps, which are product, price, promotion and place. We are going to break up the marketing mix the Paris Baguette bakery. In first place, we can see that the Paris Baguette is a bakery with a high variety of products. The Paris Baguette supplies fresh bakery products in over 3000 locations worldwide. Their products are different for each country depending on the culture and the people of each country. They do not have the same products In United States and In Singapore, for example. This is because people from different countries have different preferences of taste. However, there are some putting surface products in all their branches. For example, the most common products are the types of bread, the pastries and pie, the cakes, desserts and sandwiches and beverages.They also sell other type of products like cups of tea. talking about the price, the price in the Paris Baguette is equal to the quality of the product and the cost of purchase. The Paris Baguette keeps affordable prices in order to be accessible for more people to attract more customers. Of course they have to analyse the competitors prices and offers before adjust the final price of their products. Also determining the demand of each product and the estimating costs. If a product has a high demand, the cost would increase. For example, a piece of cake would cost around $3.95. Talking about the promotion, the Paris Baguette is a bakery with lots of promotions. They use two different ways of promotion to attract people. The first way is to do advertisements about their products with nice pictures and an apparently family friendly place.The turn way is doing sales promotion. For example, buy one dessert and get the second one secrete, or doing breakfast offers like a cup of coffee and a sandwich for $3.50. They use this two ways for promotion. Finally, the place. The Paris Baguette focuses always in getting branches in the centre of the cities. They are not interested in getting branches in small towns or places with not too much people. This is because they want a high average of people per day and this can achieved just in the centre of the cities and specific places. For example, in Singapore they have a big branch in Orchard, which is the main road in Singapore.Marketing MixIn my opinion, there are a few points that Paris Baguette could implement inthe future. This can be focus on the promotion events. In my opin ion, the Paris Baguette could implement quite a lot their customers by doing some cake and bread events. Paris Baguette can attract more customers, while promoting their products. This could be done by doing some events each year rent a place in a shopping mall and set up a stage in a large crowd places .Meanwhile, while promoting their products, Paris Baguette can give out their new products with free of charge . This would be an improvement for their fame. This because as long as it is free, when people try their bakery products and it taste good, people will buy the products. These events will attract people from all(prenominal)where, which mean Paris Baguette will have more customers buying their products and it will increase their profit. Profit in business comes from repeat customers, customers that overstate about your project or service, and that bring friends with them. (Edwards, 1993)RecommendationIn Singapore, Bread Talks fame surpasses Paris Baguette. Thus, Paris Bague tte may advertise on TV or newspaper in order to increases brand awareness. Besides, they also need to expand more branches all around Singapore in every single shopping malls to increase competitive. This is because are only four branches of Paris Baguette, which is far less than numbers of branches of Bread Talk and other bakery companies.ConclusionSang mi dang was a small bakery which began in 1945. After some improvement, Paris Baguette have been start up and their business expand with a rapid speed. Paris Baguette is a mature domestic franchise bakery with a high percentage of share terms and their shops have already franchised to worldwide. Paris Baguette have maintained their high position for a period. This is because they have did their Micro and Macro environmental factors, which will affect their business, and they try to overcome it. Besides, Paris Baguette also did investigation of its competitors, in order to know more about its competitors. After the investigation hav e done, they try to compare it to their own companies by using a perceptual mapping concept, which can help them to know their own range with its competitors.Moreover, to know how to gain more customers, Paris baguette bring a survey method by asking the random passers and toknow more about, which bakery products do they prefer or like. In addition, Paris baguette known as a bakery which more on product and price, which mean they sell high quality products. Therefore, they will choose a high quality of raw ingredients to produce their products and set up a higher price but reasonable. Nevertheless, Paris Baguette also choose more crowded area to set up their shop to let more people notice their shop and buy their products. Besides, in order to attract customer, Paris Baguette also did some promotions for theirs products such as the special of the day for the products.ReferencesBarney, J.B (1995). Looking inner(a) for competitive advantage, Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49 -61Cafehopping. (2012-2014). Paris Baguette. Available http//cafehopping.sg/review-post/paris-baguette-cafe-singapore/. Last accessed 3rd April 2014.Demographics of Singapore. ONLINE Available from Accessed 20 display 2014Henry, A (2008), Understanding Strategic Management (1st ed.), Oxford OUP.Jaeseok Jeong, et. al. (2013). Sucess Factor of Paris Baguettes Bakery Frachise line of descent Industry Competition and Core Competence Analysis. ASIA MARKETING JOURNAL. 15 (2), p1-27.James Manktelow. (1996-2014). The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps. Available http//www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_94.htm. Last accessed 3rd April 2014.Political Environment. ONLINE Available from Accessed 27 March 2014 shaft of light Kroc. (1902-1984). Ray Kroc quotes. Available last accessed 1st April 2014.Ross Peros, (N.D).Quotes. AvailableLast accessed 1st April 2014.S. Jaychandran (2006). Marketing Management text and cases. red-hot Delhi Anurag Jain.Singapore is most business-friendly for 7th year stra ight By Malminderjit Singh The Business Times Fri, Oct 26, 2012 ONLINE Available from Accessed 21 March 2014W. Edwards. (1900-1993). W. Edwards Deming quotes. Available http//thinkexist.com/quotation/profit_in_business_comes_from_repeat_customers/226671.html. Last accessed 3rd April 2014.What is a macro environment? ONLINE Available from Accessed 20 March 2014

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Family Systems theory Essay

Why pick up families?Traditional psychology problem an individual hotshot Externalise distress act out impute distress withdrawTheorists Psychoanalytic e.g Freud fixated at a phase due to trauma and regress to this take Behaviourists e.g learn inappropriate response Attachment insecure primary attachmentSociological perspectiveBronfenbrenners model ecological approacha)Life cycle stressesb)Stresses related to cultural expectationsc)Stresses related to historical timed)Random batche)Stress reactions which create more stressDoes research harbour the sociological viewpoint?YES Distress related to leave out of social support Overcrowded housing, father in gaol, depressed mother Parental stress & maternal electronegativity plus sister temperament PovertyWhat is familys position in the sociological model? to the highest degree influential part of childs social context buffer between child and external universe serves to protect or expose child usually positiveDo famili es need support? Bronfenbrenners model less applicable now? Less sense of community Increased fragmentationHow do families work?Can be seen as a system stress - distress child most likely to be the distressed person as most powerlessBasic expositCirculatory causation interactive modelNon-summativity whole more than sum of partsCommunication musical note and contentGoverned by rules spoken or understoodHomeostasis in some sort of balanceMorphogenesis flexibleness to respond to changeHow do you measure family relationships?Research relies on two dimensions Affection (aka warmth, acceptance, cohesion, closeness)Disengaged-OK-EnmeshedAcceptance hold back (aka power, autonomy, flexibility)Neglect-OKRigidAutonomyWhat happens when families get stressed?Timberlawn studies (Walsh 1993)Optimal familiesStrong, warm relationships especially marital oneSee causes and effects as circulatorySee events as multi-causative.Actively involved in world outside familyNegotiate effectivelyFeeli ngs and thoughts expressed and acceptedLittle blame or personal ack-ack gunSee human nature as benign do best in a factFlexible adjust to new situationsADEQUATE FAMILIESSeek control rather than intimacyCentripetal territorial dominion boundEnmeshedPower battlesScapegoatingSevere eg sectsCentrifugalMore comfortable with negative feelingsBlame and feelerChildren expected to be independent earlyMaterial wealth takes preference over relationshipsExtreme chaotic, intimidating, actually unstableHow can early childhood educators help?Recognise difficultiesEmotionally supportingReferring on developmentHelping with children if in crisis

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Letter in Response to Noelle Mcarthys Article Essay

Being different will only result in tears I fuck understand your point of view although I cant help but disagree. Your personal find may be true, moreover, it is only one story out of a possible 7 meg You said that being unique will only mean you ar picked on, but in my thought this is not true as people look up to someone with a new behavior and it is often emulated, how else would fashions start?Perhaps one of your main points is how it is unbidden to choke in, follow the crowd as anything else will result in being bullied. Hans kruuk did an experiment where he marked an x on a gazelle, and so release it back into the wild. This study showed the marked animal became a target and was killed every time. You then applied this to school children, guessing they know it does not pay to be different. I say you cannot equal humans and animals. Animals eat each other, it is their air of life in contrast humans eat animals because we be the superior race bullying is a moral evi l, not a natural evil.A group of scientists at Oxford University carried out a three-year study looking at why cats and kittens be sc ard of their owners, and if this is instinctive or just now developed in childhood. Their results showed that on average 90% of cats who are scared of humans were bullied as a kitten. No cat naturally tries to blend in, however it tries to make relationships. When kittens mystify abusive owners, it resulted in them becoming scared of all humans, as they might get hurt again.If you are a victim you become conscious and try to fit in to stop the event re-occurring, therefore this disproves your logical argument that Every school child knows instinctively it does not pay to be different this behaviour is learned. You say that no one should help someone being bullied, because they will become a target too, so we keep away and we turn away when the predators pounce. Lies. Front-page news headlines are often about courageous heroes who have saved som eone from being bullied. SusanDichander, a German civilian, won a Nobel peace award fail year. She saved over 2,000 Jewish children effectively, being bullied by Hitler. She is now honoured to own the reward and her friends are family are so proud that she went against the majority and trusted instinct Another statement you made was that it is better to blend in, if you look like everyone else, you will not be victimised. I say what if you cannot change the way you look? Being the only black child in a white school would be hard, but you cant change skin colour.Disabled people cannot blend in if you are in a wheel chair, then there is nothing you can do to change that. To be liked is not about blending in, its not about what you look like, but its about your personality. Finally, I would like to applaud you for your article, you made some persuasive arguments but in contrast, bulling for children in 2012 is extremely different to the torment received in the 1970s. With the developm ent of technology Facebook, Twitter and all social networking sites cyber bullying is a new usage.Bullies who are too scared to say something face to face, or simply do not want it to escalate into violence can send nasty messages over the meshing anonymously (or so they think). This has been made a criminal offence, the police can track down where the messages are coming from, and that person may be prosecuted. You proved in your article, being different can alike end in making new friends who like you for who you really are, these endure for life surely, thats a difference worth celebrating.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Qar Reading Strategy

Grade Level(s) K-3 When? literary Focus Before Fluency During Comprehension After Vocabulary Writing Oral Language Q. A. R. (Question-Answer-Relationships) Question-Answer Relationships, or QAR, is a rendering comprehension strategy developed to aid in the approach that students take when considering texts and dish outing gestures about that text. Students learn to categorize types of questions which in turn help them know where to prevail information. It encourages students to be active, strategic readers of texts. QARoutlineswhere information good deal be implant In the Text or In my mentality. It because breaks down the actual question- practise relationships into four types Right There, Think and inquisition, Author and Me, and On My Own. (Fisher, D. , Brozo, W. G. , Frey, N. , & Ivey, G, 2011, pg. 81) STEP-BY-STEP and EXAMPLE elect text Frog and toad Together, by Arnold Lobel 1. Hook/EngagementBegin by reviewing what students throw already acquire about how to as k questions as a way to understand the meaning of texts. For example utilize this reading asks them to talk about the kinds of questions they can ask before, during, and after reading. Next, introduce the idea that there ar two kinds of questions you can ask about texts.Explain to students that an In the Text question is a question that students can find the answer to by looking in the loudness that they argon reading. An In My Head question is a question that requires students to think about what their own knowledge is to answer the question. Review a book that you have recently read out loud with students. Write the example below on a alternate of chart paper or on the blackboard. Choose a few In the Text and In My Head questions about the book that obviously belong to one category or the other, and have students reassure you in which column to write the question.When you give students a literal question, have them show you where they found the answer in the book. When you a sk them an In My Head question, go through the book with them and show them that they couldnt find the answer in the book. defecate them give answers to the In My Head questions and explain how they answered them ( thinking about what they have learned that is not in the book). Here are most examples of the two types In the Text questions In my Head questions What is the title of the book? What is the authors name? How long is the book? Do I like the title? Have I read any other books by this author?How long will it take me to read this book? Explain that they are going to learn more and ask these types of questions about a overbold book you are going to read together. 2. Measurable ObjectivesExplain that you are going to read the number 1 three chapters of Frog and Toad Together clamorously to them, and they are going to help you make a angle of dip of In the Text and In My Head questions. Then, they are going to help you answer the questions and entrance how these types o f questions will help them to understand the story. 3. Focused InstructionReview with students the four types of questions explained in the QAR Strategy.Explain that there are two types of In the Text questions and two types of In My Head questions. Draw a copy of the QAR get across on chart paper or on the blackboard or use an overhead projector. The plug-in should look something like this In the Text questions In My Head questions Right There Think and Search Author and Me On my Own point the first chapter, A List, from Frog and Toad Together loudly to students. Next, write the questions discovered below under the Right There heading. Read the questions aloud, look through the chapter, show the students where you found the answer, and then think aloud the answer. . Right There i. What is the first thing Toad writes on his nominate? When I turn to page 4, I see that the first thing Toad writes on his rock is Wake up. ii. Who is the friend Toad goes to see? When I turn to pag e 9, I see that Toad goes to see Frog. Next, write these questions under the Think and Search heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. b. Think and Search iii. What caused Toad to forget what was on his hark? I read that Toads list blew away(predicate) and Frog did not catch it, so that is why Toad couldnt remember what was on his list. iv. How did Toad lastly remember what was the last thing on his list was? Frog reminded Toad that it was getting dark and they should be going to sleep the last thing on Toads list. Next, write these questions under the Author and Me heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. c. Author and Me v. What do you think of Toads list? I think that create verbally a list of things to do is a good idea. But, Toad could have left off some things, like waking up or getting dressed, because he doesnt need to be reminded to do that. vi.Did you check off with the reason Toad gives for not chasing after hi s list? No. I think that he should have chased after his list, even if it that wasnt one of the things on his list. He couldnt have written that on his list anyway because he didnt know the list would blow away. Next, write these questions under the On My Own heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. d. On My Own vii. Have you or somebody in your family even written a list of things to do? Yes. I have written a list of things that I have to do on a weekend day because that is not like a school day.On weekends, I do lots of different things, so I have to write a list to remind myself of all the things I have to do. viii. What would you do if you lost your to-do list and couldnt find it? I would look for it for a while and if I couldnt find it, Id write a new list of things to do. 4. This would be followed up with guided practice, independent practice, assessment, and the reflecting/planning. References Fisher, D. , Brozo, W. G. , Frey, N. , & Ivey, Gay. ( 2011). 50 Instructional Routines to Develop Content Literacy. BostonPearson.