Wednesday, April 3, 2019
The Development of Korean Pop Culture
The Development of Korean Pop CultureKorean dash off culture has risen as the most developed acquire forth culture in Asia over the last ten years. American lead off culture does non dominate Asiatic heathen trade any more. Asians ar giving their attentions to the cultural media in which they can find their identities. Many prevail recently preferred Korea defeat culture, which is fresh, trendy, and something that contains Asian sen whilents.More and More stack in Asia be selecting to listen to Korean pop songs, bide Korean characterisations, and travel to Korea to visit places collectionn in Korean funs. The sudden rise of Korean pop culture in its customaryity and its dissemination with turn out Asia is innovative, unprecedented, and fascinating. This cultural menstruum in contemporary Asia is c all tolded the Korean curl. headlinerting point of the Korean totter in ChinaThe term Korean hustle refers to the phenomenon of Korean universal culture, disseminat ed primarily through the mass media and enjoying a broad commonplaceity outside of Korea. It includes Korean plays, movies, pop music, fashion, games, and any early(a)wise cultural content. Public media began recognizing Korean touristy culture in principal(prenominal)land China in 1997, when the Korean tv drama Star Is in My Heart was send out in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and opposite Asian countries. China transporting gild broadcasted the drama throughout Asia under its Chinese title, and the drama aroused broad popular appeal e circumscribedly in mainland China. Among many elements composed the drama, the main actor, Ahn Jae Wook, caught batchs attention by his frank looking. Ahn Jae-Wook, thitherfore, became a symbol of the Korean wave in China. Following to Star Is in My Heart, Autumn Story, overwinter Sonata, What Is the Love and many other drama mesmerised volume in China.1Korea pop music has also get under ones skinn a huge role of the Korean Wave from th e beginning. Young dance music groups, H.O.T and copy ignited the Korean Wave in China in 1999. Various radio stations in China began to create programs specializing K-pop. Moreover, it is cognize that the number of devotees of H.O.T. was eight zillion unaccompanied in China in 2002. Afterwards, at least 50 different Korean pop albums were produced in China, and more than three zillion albums in total were sold by 2002.2Beyond simply consuming the media content, Chinese teen whilers repeated Korean pop songs and imitated Korean actors and singers fashion and hairstyle. In addition, Korean restaurants in China became popular among batch who were enjoying Korean pop culture.3Through the indirect experience of Korean food in television drama, stack became familiar to it and such familiarity do people walk to Korean restaurants.As the outlet of the Korean Wave, the theme image of Korea was recognized as haughty. As a result, Korean products elevated their feature protect as well. Samsung wandering(a) phones and LG air conditioners and microwaves took bigger portions at Chinese market as people demanded more of such products.4Started with the drama, Star Is in My Heart, and Korean pop music sung by H.O.T and Clone in China, the Korean Wave outstretched to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian counties. The script Wave started to link Asian regions in a huge demarcation line of cultural kinship.The Second round of Korean Wave in japanEven though people in most Asian countries showed late interests in Korea pop culture, Japan, which is geographically the ne best neighbor, was not affected by the Korean Wave until spend Sonata ravisher Japan. In 2003, the Korean drama, pass Sonata, was first sh have on Japanese television in twenty episodes. It captured 22% of the prime time viewing audience. In 2004 Winter Sonata had its assist showing. This time it captured 24% of viewing audience.5Japanese response to the Korean drama was not passive but aggressive. Japanese positively embraced the Korean drama, especially the television drama Winter Sonata and its Korean associations. Some of the Japanese fans elevated Winter Sonata to cult status. For example, the DVD of the Winter Sonata series sold out indoors few hours of its release in 2003.6Korean actors in many dramas give out celebrities in Japan. Indeed, the male leading actor in Winter Sonata, Bae Yong Joon, was turn to as Yon Sama, an honorific usually assigned only to royal house in Japan. During visits to Japan actors and actress of popular dramas were mobbed by their fans. Demand by fans for Winter Sonata merchandise has created an pains with an annual turnover in Japan and Korea worth(predicate) 2.3 billion US dollars.7The industry produces c potbellyhing, accessories, jewelers, stationery, magazines, books, DVDs and supports fan clubs.Significantly this interest all-inclusive beyond the characters of Winter Sonata toward a more general interest i n Korea. The Korean Wave greatly affected to the tourism industry in Korea. In 2004, Japan was the source of nearly half of Koreas 5.6 million overseas visitors, and was its major source of tourists. In 2006 Korean Air proclaimed special direct in flights from Japan so that Japanese fans could have more information of the Winter Sonata location sites. In the same year, NHK television media and publishers announced an increase of its annual sales of its Korean language textbook to 20,000 copies.8As Japanese have enjoyed the Korean cultural media, their interest toward Korea in general also grew.Three main understandings why the Korean Wave became popular in AsiaThe good quality of cultural media comes to the foremost reason. According to the Chinese local analysis, Korean dramas have outstanding storylines, well designed characters, and civilise directing system.9Plus, original background music (OST) be excellent as well. Whether Chinese or minute dramas repeat the obvious sto rylines making people already bored by watching only the first episode, Korean dramas own various styles and types of story raging widely. Their creativities in developing stories enkindle peoples curiosities to see the next episode.Korea actors handsome appearance, stylish fashions and hairstyles, and outstanding acting abilities are said to the best among Asian actors. Improved technology in film producing helps background settings and music to be wonderfully assimilated to each other. Camera walk and well designed composition of pictures improve overall quality of the video.The second reason is that the sparing decline of Asia forced television producers to seek out products cheaper than Japanese and Western products. The drama series were the starting-point of the Korean Wave in Taiwan. The Korean Wave arose mainly because of the media liberalization that swept across Asia in 1990s, when the economic crisis made Asian buyers prefer the cheaper Korean products compared with Ja panese and Hong Kong products. The chief(a) producer of K-Pop Entertainment at Gala-TV in Taiwan told that the main reason that GTV began programming Korean dramas was because of their cheap prices compared to Japanese products, and Korean dramas were even cheaper than domestic ones.10According to her, Korean dramas were of much better quality then Taiwanese products, but were much cheaper, so GTV dubbed in Mandarin and aired the programs as if they were locally made dramas.11In 1999, GTV began buying old dramas from the Korean bare System under the considerations that it costs less than the domestic dramas and the quality of the Korean dramas could be guaranteed. GTV was informed that KBS had invested a huge amount of money in production. Indeed, Korea has long invested in dramas, and after 1993 it has encouraged the investment of private swell in the media industry. Therefore, to supplement domestic dramas, GTV introduced Korean dramas of low cost and good quality.12Thirdly, K orean movies, dramas, and sometimes even pop music show equity and kindness. In Korean movies and dramas, people are amiable, and families are harmonious. Juniors respect elders and elders hold dear juniors. Lovers love sweetly each other, and spouses care for each other. Korean dramas represent the harmonious and virgin-hearted feelings.First of all, such heartwarming stories attract wide age groups. It is appropriate for elementary school kids to elder grandma and grandpa to watch altogether. Most western dramas or movies contain suggestive scenes to express ardent love between lovers which made family members to be a damp to watch them. However, all family members gather around and can watch Korean dramas or movies which broadly speaking depict pure-hearted loves between friends, families, and lovers.Second of all, pure love between lovers especially attracted Japanese women. Winter Sonata which delivers the story of pure love between main characters evoked Japanese Womens m emories of their first love. Since purity in love was already old-fashioned culture in Japan, women who watched Winter Sonata brought out their nostalgic feelings toward pure love. Husband and wife do not talk a lot because Japanese people do not directly reveal their emotions and feelings to others which were regarded as the most secret part of individuals.13The actions, that spouses sincerely care for each other, randy desires of Japanese women to be loved from their love directly and in a gentle way.Lastly, the family value commonly dealt in Korean drama evoked nostalgic feeling toward family among Chinese people. Through the Cultural Revolution and through the national campaign, One family, one child, wide families were exterminated in China. Naturally, the erstwhile(a) generations miss memories they had in large families. The older generations in China could be vicarious satisfaction as they enjoy Korea drama.Even though Asian countries are bound with the similar cultures an d traditions, purity in love and family value were lost in Japanese and Chinese night club. Pure-hearted feelings and harmonious aspects of Korean society reflected on drama played the significant role to promote the Korean Wave in two societies.The localise of Economic EffectsSince the Korean Wave is a Korean pop-culture syndrome, the exportation of cultural industry is at the core of its economic terminations. To calculate the all economic impacts, however, the exportation of cultural industry is not fully satisfied. The differential gear products payable to the Korean Wave, riffle effects on national thrift, and immeasurable effect such as diplomatic effect should be regarded as economic effects that the Korea Wave brought.14CategoryRangeCultural industry(effect of direct exp.)Movie, broadcast, music, game, book, concert derivative products(effect of indirect exp.)Cosmetics, tour, accessories, clothes, mobile phone, root word thingmabob, automobile, foodRipple effects o nNational sparingActive production of cultural industry and derivative goods, creating jobsImmeasurable effectsHangeul, Korean food, diplomacy, national imageTable I. The Range of Korean Wave ProductsFirst, cultural industry includes movie, broadcast, music, game, book, and concert at which people directly show their enthusiasm. Second, derivative products are products such as decoratives, tour, accessories, clothes, mobile phone, home appliance, automobile, and food which are indirectly linked with the cultural contents. machine that one Korean star drove in drama or the place where the drama was directed are in this category. Third, ripple effect on national economy is that effect on the other economy as cultural industry and derivative products are exported. For example, if the cultural contents were exported and therefore if the mobile phone meets the great demand, the mobile phone company needs to employ more people to produce the phone. As a result, more jobs are created in domestic market. This is a ripple effect on national economy. Fourth, immeasurable effects is, as it says in its word, it is not measurable by numeric values or by statistics. It is undetectable effect such as people who are big fan of Korean culture giping Korean language.The Effects of Cultural intentnessTable II. Exports of Cultural Industry in 2005 social unit million KRWKorean exports in cultural industry to overseas amount to eleven million dollars in 2007. It shows 11.3% of annual maturateth from 2005 to 2007. In the font of movie industry, the movie, in which Bae yong-Jun (Yon-sama) acted in 2005, was exported at a high cost to Japan. The success of this movie resulted out export 76 million dollars. However, the following year inform the exports of only 25 million dollars which fells 68%.JapanChinaAsia early(a)TotalMovie48,4794365,39332754,634broadcast74,23512,47323,241642110,592 bet on120,85460,18841,6693,021225,732Music2,6614611863,308Book14,4612,7265,1521,76724,1 06 plan1,004501,054total261,69476,28575,4555,993419,42715Table III. Exports of Cultural Industry in 2006 unit million KRWJapanChinaAsiaOtherTotalMovie7,9443445,03626013,584broadcast61,1419,47543,6561,137115,409Game101,98175,76850,4624,296232,507Music2,0791,82163,906Book9,3302,5104711,887Concert937956471,939total183,41390,874104,4547,354386,09416Table IV. Exports of Cultural Industry in 2007 unit million KRWJapanChinaAsiaOtherTotalMovie4,7236965,28132911,028broadcast83,15411,20829,3651,188124,916Game110,634112,12145,0794,411272,246Music1,6041,153182,775Book7,2463,93811,8031,80024,787Concert911929461,886total208,273130,04691,5287,792437.63917The broadcast industry is especially strong in Japan than any other Asian countries. While the broadcast industries in Japan and China show fairly steady outcome, other Asian countries and non-Asian region suddenly consumed the forked volume of Korean television dramas in 2006 compared to that of 2005. The game industry, which takes the biggest p ortion in the cultural industry, gradually increase it exports.The Effects of derived function ProductDerivative products are not the cultural contents however, they are closely connect to the Korean Wave. The car appeared in drama or the cosmetics which Korea celebrities advertising are included in the realm of derivative products. Therefore, they are second biggest part in calculating the economic effects of the Korean Wave.Korean cosmetic brands such as The Face Shop and Misha rapidly grew in size of it in the international market and exported three hundred million dollars in 2005 and three hundred fifty million dollars in 2007. Cosmetic brands are sensitive to their models therefore, companies frequently change the models to the most popular one at the time. Interestingly, Korean cosmetic brands use male Korea celebrities who are at the have-to doe with of the Korean Wave because, in this way, it is easier for companies to appeal to pistillate Korean fans in overseas. This is the strategies Korea cosmetic companies are using to target the international market.In the case of clothes, clothes industry resulted out the exports of twenty-three million dollars in 2005 however, exporting volume has been gradually decreased to seventeen million dollars in 2007. abate in home appliance exports can be explained by the increase supply of Chinese products with the developing qualities in China mainland. When the exports of clothes, accessories, mobile phone, and home appliances were decreasing, automobile industry stretched its competitiveness in the international market with the grow rate of 12.5%. Koreas developed technology in automobile production and positive image toward Korean automobile brand established such consequence. afield fans interest and familiarity to Korean food helped its industry internationally.JapanChinaAsia exploitation rateCosmetics3063193466.3Tour1,139935791-16.1Clothes2,3131,95561,705-14.1Accessories405320296-14.5Mobile phone19,09516 ,79918,644-1.2Home appliance14,65614,55313,433-4.3Automobile27,25630,59734,48212.5Food8751,0301,15414.8Table V. Exports of Derivative Products unit million KRW, %18Table VI. Inflow of Foreigners Tour expenses200520062007Growth Rate(%)Number of tourists6,022,7526,155,0476,448,2403.5The rate of tourists referable to the Korean Wave (%)14.211.810.0Number of tourists due to the Korea Wave (KOR)855,231726,296644,824-13.2Total custom due to the Korea Wave (million KOR)1,166,329893,419735,099-21.619The number of tourists is increasing from 2005 to 2007 with the growth rate of 3.5%. However, the number of tourists who visited Korea because of the Korea Wave is decreasing with the rate of -13.2%. Winter Sonata sensationally hit Japan in 2003. Thus, the rate of tourists, who came to Korea by the influence of the Korean Wave, in 2005 is comparatively higher than in 2006 and in 2007 as the aftereffect of Winter Sonata.As Japanese tourists who were deeply impressed by Winter Sonata increases a fter 2003, elicit thing happened in the streets in Korea. The shops near the locations appeared in Korean drama have Japanese explanations on each products. Moreover, the shop assistants in Myung-doing streets judge people in Japanese. They speak Japanese more than Korean to splatter Japanese tourists.The decreasing number of tourists due to the Korean Wave does not mean that the Korean Wave has less impact on other cultures. Rather, people, who already visited Korea, would not make a second trip in near future. Therefore, it is quite natural that the number of people visiting Korea due to the Korean Wave gets smaller and smaller, regarding the huge impact of Winter Sonata in 2003. Instead, increasing number of tourists shows the general perception on the image of Korea is modify and it is ultimately the result of the Korean Wave. Therefore, I conclude that the Korean Wave yet fosters the tourism industry in Korea.Riffle Effects on National EconomyThrough the Korean Wave, Korean international economy was vitalized. Growing demands of Korean cultural contents from abroad have increased supplies, and therefore, Korean cultural industry has grown in a large scale. legion(predicate) companies which create the cultural contents require more advertize force as they extend their business. The Korean Wave not only vitalized the Korean economy but also opened the labor market to support industry. Considering the fact that companies, which directly or indirectly related to the Korean Wave, inevitably employ more labors, unimaginable number of people would come into the economic activities, relieving unemployment and boosting the national economy. The Korea Wave started with few dramas and pop songs straight controls the whole national economy.Immeasurable effectsKorean fans outside of Korea often learn Korean language and eat Korean food. More and more people have interest in Korean culture and favorable seal toward Korea. These sociological phenomena raise the power of Korea very softly everywhere in the world where the Korea cultural syndrome has hit. This is the Soft Power that Korean has.ConclusionThe Korean Wave hit China in 1997 for the fist time and now its influence prevails all over Asia. By watching the same drama, by reading the same comic book, and by listing to the same pop songs, people have a strong sense of solidarity. Reflecting on my own experience, Asian teenagers become intimate to each other easily by sharing their cultural interests. In the fact that cultural contents take the large portion on students lives, there is nothing better which connects the students so tightly. They would forget the time flying away when they talk about their own favorite dramas and celebrities.The Korean Wave was directly connected to the domestic economy. Numerous cultural industries have expanded their influence in Asia and related manufacturing industry also has been thrived. The cultural industry established the average exports of 414, 387 million win from 2005 to 2007 and the derivative industry reached to the average exports of 2,204,567 million Won from 2005 to 2007. The whole economic impacts including the ripple effects during the past few years are horrific in Korean domestic economy.There are several shortages of the Korean Wave that the Korean cultural contents overwhelmingly attract female but only mimic influence to male and that the current Korean Wave is not as sensational as the past few years. The Korean dramas and movies mostly deal with romantic love stories which women love and do not take action or thriller genres which men like. To embrace a broader range of people, Korean production companies need to develop creative and provoke scenarios in various genres. Plus, the economic effects are diminishing in many sectors of industry such as clothes, home appliance, and mobile phone. It is because there are recently no big contents such as Winter Sonata and Dae Jang Geum which rose fanatical boom a bout Korean media. The more efforts to create the high quality cultural contents enable to continue the glory of Korean Wave in 2004 and 2005.Asian countries and people have never gathered and shared the same cultural contents before as they do these days. Even though there are worried voices that Asian cultures are losing diversity in arts and culture, I valued more on the Korean Waves positive effects that connecting many countries and people in Asia in a close bound. I bank the unified the cultural market in Asia region would be the play for cultural industries in each Asian countries to cooperative each other to create more developed cultural contents opening up new visas of the future.