Thursday, September 26, 2019

Epidemiologic Investigation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

Epidemiologic Investigation - Essay Example In the context of this project, the disease agent is a particular strain of E. coli that is well regarded as a food borne pathogen responsible for an infectious diarrheal disease. By definition, the characterization of the disease is intimately related to characterization of the agent that initiates or perpetuates the disease process. The E. coli talked about here is an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli, which is a biological agent which exhibits certain host-related biological properties such as infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence. Since an individual almost always contract a disease from his environment, when an epidemic of infectious disease occurs, the cause usually lies in the environment. Therefore, in any specific population, in order to be able to prevent outbreak of any disease state and to be able to intervene, the conditions prevailing any health-related event or state can be investigated, and appropriate measures can be taken to apply the findings of such studies for controlling the health problems preemptively. FoodNet or the Food Borne Diseases Active Surveillance Network was developed by CDC in the Emerging Infections Program. In this program, data are collected 10 US states in relation to the disease burden caused by Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strains that are known to be transmitted through food. This program quantifies and monitors the incidence of these infections by conducting active surveillance for laboratory-diagnosed illness. This epidemiologic event has great implications in public health. From the epidemiologic point of view, this is important since FoodNet quantifies and monitors these infections by conducting active population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed illness. The epidemiologic methods are used as surveillance tools, and these essentially scrutinize continuously the factors that would have determined the occurrence and distribution of this disease to be able to effectively control and prevent the disease. These essentially include collection, analysis, inter pretation, and distribution of relevant data for action. Escherichia coli is an emerging cause of food borne illness in the United States. Although most of these illnesses are mild, severe infections and serious life-threatening infections do occur. This has posed challenges to public health and public health administrations since there is change in the newly identified strains of the pathogens. With that, novel vehicles of transmission, changes in food production, and an apparent decline in food safety awareness might have aggravated the problems leading to these illnesses. There are several types of national surveillance systems for diseases that are food borne. These epidemiologic tools include outbreak surveillance, passive laboratory based surveillance, and active surveillance. Communicable diseases may be transmitted from the reservoir or the source of infection to the susceptible individuals in many different ways depending on the infectious agent, portal of entry, and the local ecological conditions. It is important to note that mu ch of the data about the vehicles and modes of transmission of these food borne diseases come from epidemiologic investigations of the outbreaks. From the public health point of view, the

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